This workbook revises simple addition and subtraction and introduces more advanced questions.
Horizontal Addition Practice
Your child may still be using their fingers to calculate the answer to number sentences such as 18 + 2 = 20. At this stage you can encourage your child to use other strategies to calculate answers such as remembering the large number (18) and counting on using the small number (+2). You can also explain to your child that when adding they can swap the position of the numbers to calculate the answer faster e.g. 6 + 4 is the same as 4 + 6.
Vertical addition practice
The vertical addition questions focus on the importance of number place value i.e. ones lined up below ones (units), tens underneath tens and hundreds underneath hundreds and so on. Completing these units gives your child practice at the more advanced step of maintaining number place value while ‘carrying over’, for example
 3 8 Always start from the ones (far right hand side), 8 + 2 = 10
 + 2 ” 0 ” goes under the ones and ” 1 ” goes on the top of tens ” 3 ” so 1 + 3 =4
 4 0 so the answer is 40
Vertical subtraction practice
The questions in these units also focus on number place value. They provide practice in taking from the next number in order to calculate the answers to subtraction sums that contain multiple ” 0 ” s.

1000 When the top number is smaller than the bottom number by place value, each  – 2 7 9 place has to take from one higher place value than its own value.
 7 2 1 Working from right to left when 1 is right to left when 1 is taken from the next higher value column it has a value of 10
 Ones (units) : take from the tens
 Tens : take from the hundreds
 Hundreds : take from the thousands
How this works
 Ones : 10 – 9 = 1
 Tens : 9 – 7 = 2 (10 taken from hundreds but 1 given to ones)
 Hundreds : 9 – 2 = 7 (10 taken from thousands but 1 given to tens)
 Thousands : 1 taken so nothing is left in this place value
 When all individual sums are positioned underneath their place value the answer is 721
Daily practice will help your child:
 to hold number in their short term memory
 to learn the skill of counting on from numbers greater than 10
 to learn that subtraction of numbers with two or more digits must be carried out from right to left
 to learn that numbers must be correctly aligned in order to calculate the correct answer
 to understand the importance of number place value
Summary of Contents
 80 units of two to multiple digit horizontal and vertical addition and subtraction practice
 Answers to each unit
 Suitable for 7 to 12 year olds
Addition and Subtraction Workbook = $12.00 AUD